Our Catholic Faith Home Page

Our Catholic Faith

 

Ordinary Time

Pray Rosary  Today's Mass  150 Reasons  Downloads   Bible References

 العربية  中文 Français Deutsch Italiano 日本語 한국어 Portuguese Российская Español

 

Tell a Friend

 

Home Page

 

New!

Daily Readings

EWTN TV Live Online

Favorite Videos

 

 

The Church

How It Started

Western Schism
Eastern Schism

Reformation

The Pope

History Of The Church
Joining The Church

 

The Faith

The Mass

Common Prayers

Liturgy of the Hours

John 6

Confession

Litany of the Saints
Stations Of The Cross

 

Teachings

The Catechism
Catechism Questions
Catechism Research
Infant Baptism
Confession
Indulgences
Purgatory

 

Sacraments

Baptism
Confirmation
Eucharist
Reconciliation
Anointing Of The Sick
Marriage
Holy Orders

 

Our Lady

Virgin Mary
The Rosary
Pray The Rosary
Our Lady Of Lourdes

 

Reference Info

Catholic Info Project
General Apparitions
Saints Of The Church
Patron & Intercessors
Bible References
Church Documents
Canon Law
Vatican Archives
Vatican Museum
Vatican News
Vatican TV
Downloads

 

Helpful Links

ZENIT News Service
Mass Times By City
Catholic News
The Liturgical Year
Liturgical Celebrations
Free Latin Translation
Local Catholic Links
Notre Dame Archives
Daily Readings - Listen
Saint Of The Day
Catholic Extension

 

Information

Abortion
Common Questions
Lectures (Audio)
Complete Link List
Radio And TV
Picture Gallery
About Me

 

Special Interest

Heresy
Reformation History
Articles of Interest
The Crucifixion
Exam Of Conscience
Opulence & Poverty
Sin More Than A Word
Last Supper
Meaning Of Love
To All Non-Catholics
150 Reasons
The Apocalypse
Letters From Visitors
 

Listen To Music

Vocal

Click Number To Right For Web Site Of The Artist

 

Alleluia Canon

All That I Am (7)

Ave Maria (1)

Baby Jesus (2)

Hail Mary

I Am The Vine (6)

In This Bread (8)

Lo How A Rose (2)

Lord Is My Shepherd (3)

Oh Holy Night (2)

Promised Son (2)

Room In Our Hearts (2)

Shepherd Me O God (5)

Your Name Is Holy (4)

 

Chants

Alma Redemptoris

Angus Dei

Gloria  Gloria

Kyre 

Rorate Caeli

Salve Regina

Sanctus

The Rosary

 

Litany of Saints

 

English Version 1

 

English Version 2 (fav)

Cantor Christi Chiapetti

 

Latin

 

Instrumental

Ave Maria

MIDI MP3 Harp

 

 Hail Mary

(MIDI

Touch Jesus

Pure White Shawl touched by the

Stone of the Unction

Help The Society Of

St. Vincent de Paul Minister To The Poor

Site Map

     

ADVERTISEMENTS BELOW  ARE NOT ENDORSED BY THIS WEBSITE. THEY ARE PROVIDED BY A 3RD PARTY AND INCOME IS USED FOR PAYMENT OF HOSTING FEES.

 

 

ADVERTISEMENTS ABOVE ARE NOT ENDORSED BY THIS WEBSITE. THEY ARE PROVIDED BY A 3RD PARTY AND INCOME IS USED FOR PAYMENT OF HOSTING FEES.


Visitors To Date

 

The Crucifixion Of Jesus

A medical explanation of what Jesus endured on the day He died
By Dr. C. Truman Davis*

A Physician Analyzes the Crucifixion.
From New Wine Magazine, April 1982.
Originally published in Arizona Medicine,
March 1965, Arizona Medical Association.

 

Several years ago I became interested in the physical aspects of the passion, or suffering, of Jesus Christ when I read an account of the crucifixion in Jim Bishop's book, The Day Christ Died. I suddenly realized that I had taken the crucifixion more or less for granted all these years - that I had grown callous to its horror by a too-easy familiarity with the grim details. It finally occurred to me that, as a physician, I did not even know the actual immediate cause of Christ's death. The gospel writers do not help much on this point. Since crucifixion and scourging were so common during their lifetimes, they undoubtedly considered a detailed description superfluous. For that reason we have only the concise words of the evangelists: "Pilate, having scourged Jesus, delivered Him to them to be crucified ... and they crucified Him."

 

Despite the gospel accounts silence on the details of Christ's crucifixion, many have looked into this subject in the past. In my personal study of the event from a medical viewpoint, I am indebted especially to Dr. Pierre Barbet, a French surgeon who did exhaustive historical and experimental research and wrote extensively on the topic.

An attempt to examine the infinite psychic and spiritual suffering of the Incarnate1 God in atonement for the sins of fallen man is beyond the scope of this article. However, the physiological and anatomical aspects of our Lord's passion we can examine in some detail. What did the body of Jesus of Nazareth actually endure during those hours of torture?

 

Gethsemane

The physical passion of Christ began in Gethsemane. Of the many aspects of His initial suffering, the one which is of particular physiological interest is the bloody sweat. Interestingly enough, the physician, St. Luke, is the only evangelist to mention this occurrence. He says, "And being in an agony, he prayed the longer. And his sweat became as drops of blood, trickling down upon the ground" (Luke 22:44 KJV).

 

Every attempt imaginable has been used by modern scholars to explain away the phenomenon of bloody sweat, apparently under the mistaken impression that it simply does not occur. A great deal of effort could be saved by consulting the medical literature. Though very rare, the phenomenon of hematidrosis, or bloody sweat, is well documented. Under great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process alone could have produced marked weakness and possible shock.

 

Although Jesus' betrayal and arrest are important portions of the passion story, the next event in the account which is significant from a medical perspective is His trial before the Sanhedrin and Caiaphas, the High Priest. Here the first physical trauma was inflicted. A soldier struck Jesus across the face for remaining silent when questioned by Caiaphas. The palace guards then blindfolded Him, mockingly taunted Him to identify them as each passed by, spat on Him, and struck Him in the face.

 

Before Pilate

In the early morning, battered and bruised, dehydrated, and worn out from a sleepless night, Jesus was taken across Jerusalem to the Praetorium of the Fortress Antonia, the seat of government of the Procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate. We are familiar with Pilate's action in attempting to shift responsibility to Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Judea. Jesus apparently suffered no physical mistreatment at the hands of Herod and was returned to Pilate. It was then, in response to the outcry of the mob, that Pilate ordered Barabbas released and condemned Jesus to scourging and crucifixion.

 

Preparations for Jesus' scourging were carried out at Caesar's orders. The prisoner was stripped of His clothing and His hands tied to a post above His head. The Roman legionnaire stepped forward with the flagrum, or flagellum, in his hand. This was a short whip consisting of several heavy, leather thongs with two small balls of lead attached near the ends of each. The heavy whip was brought down with full force again and again across Jesus' shoulders, back, and legs. At first the weighted thongs cut through the skin only. Then, as the blows continued, they cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, producing first an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin and finally spurting arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles.

 

The small balls of lead first produced large deep bruises that were broken open by subsequent blows. Finally, the skin of the back was hanging in long ribbons, and the entire area was an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue. When it was determined by the centurion in charge that the prisoner was near death, the beating was finally stopped.

 

Mockery

The half-fainting Jesus was then untied and allowed to slump to the stone pavement, wet with his own blood. The Roman soldiers saw a great joke in this provincial Jew claiming to be a king. They threw a robe across His shoulders and placed a stick in His hand for a scepter. They still needed a crown to make their travesty complete. Small flexible branches covered with long thorns, commonly used for kindling fires in the charcoal braziers in the courtyard, were plaited into the shape of a crude crown. The crown was pressed into his scalp and again there was copious bleeding as the thorns pierced the very vascular tissue. After mocking Him and striking Him across the face, the soldiers took the stick from His hand and struck Him across the head, driving the thorns deeper into His scalp. Finally, they tired of their sadistic sport and tore the robe from His back. The robe had already become adherent to the clots of blood and serum in the wounds, and its removal, just as in the careless removal of a surgical bandage, caused excruciating pain. The wounds again began to bleed.

 

Golgotha

In deference to Jewish custom, the Romans apparently returned His garments. The heavy patibulum of the cross was tied across His shoulders. The procession of the condemned Christ, two thieves, and the execution detail of Roman soldiers headed by a centurion began its slow journey along the route which we know today as the Via Dolorosa.

 

In spite of Jesus' efforts to walk erect, the weight of the heavy wooden beam, together with the shock produced by copious loss of blood, was too much. He stumbled and fell. The rough wood of the beam gouged into the lacerated skin and muscles of the shoulders. He tried to rise, but human muscles had been pushed beyond their endurance. The centurion, anxious to proceed with the crucifixion, selected a stalwart North African onlooker, Simon of Cyrene, to carry the cross. Jesus followed, still bleeding and sweating the cold, clammy sweat of shock. The 650-yard journey from the Fortress Antonia to Golgotha was finally completed. The prisoner was again stripped of His clothing except for a loin cloth which was allowed the Jews.

 

The crucifixion began. Jesus was offered wine mixed with myrrh, a mild analgesic, pain-reliving mixture. He refused the drink. Simon was ordered to place the patibulum on the ground, and Jesus was quickly thrown backward, with His shoulders against the wood. The legionnaire felt for the depression at the front of the wrist. He drove a heavy, square wrought-iron nail through the wrist and deep into the wood. Quickly, he moved to the other side and repeated the action, being careful not to pull the arms too tightly, but to allow some flexion and movement. The patibulum was then lifted into place at the top of the stipes, and the titulus reading "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" was nailed into place.

 

The left foot was pressed backward against the right foot. With both feet extended, toes down, a nail was driven through the arch of each, leaving the knees moderately flexed. The victim was now crucified.

 

On the Cross

As Jesus slowly sagged down with more weight on the nails in the wrists, excruciating, fiery pain shot along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain. The nails in the wrists were putting pressure on the median nerve, large nerve trunks which traverse the mid-wrist and hand. As He pushed himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He placed His full weight on the nail through His feet. Again there was searing agony as the nail tore through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of this feet.

 

At this point, another phenomenon occurred. As the arms fatigued, great waves of cramps swept over the muscles, knotting them in deep relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps came the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by the arm, the pectoral muscles, the large muscles of the chest, were paralyzed and the intercostal muscles, the small muscles between the ribs, were unable to act. Air could be drawn into the lungs, but could not be exhaled. Jesus fought to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, the carbon dioxide level increased in the lungs and in the blood stream, and the cramps partially subsided.

 

The Last Words

Spasmodically, He was able to push Himself upward to exhale and bring in life-giving oxygen. It was undoubtedly during these periods that He uttered the seven short sentences that are recorded.

The first - looking down at the Roman soldiers throwing dice6 for His seamless garment: "Father, forgive them for they do not know what they do."

 

The second - to the penitent thief: "Today, thou shalt be with me in Paradise."

 

The third - looking down at Mary His mother, He said: "Woman, behold your son." Then turning to the terrified, grief-stricken adolescent John , the beloved apostle, He said: "Behold your mother."

 

The fourth cry is from the beginning of Psalm 22: "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"

 

He suffered hours of limitless pain, cycles of twisting, joint-rending cramps, intermittent partial asphyxiation, and searing pain as tissue was torn from His lacerated back from His movement up and down against the rough timbers of the cross. Then another agony began: a deep crushing pain in the chest as the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, slowly filled with serum and began to compress the heart.

 

The prophecy in Psalm 22:14 was being fulfilled: "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint, my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels."

 

The end was rapidly approaching. The loss of tissue fluids had reached a critical level; the compressed heart was struggling to pump heavy, thick, sluggish blood to the tissues, and the tortured lungs were making a frantic effort to inhale small gulps of air. The markedly dehydrated tissues sent their flood of stimuli to the brain. Jesus gasped His fifth cry: "I thirst." Again we read in the prophetic psalm: "My strength is dried up like a potsherd; my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou has brought me into the dust of death" (Psalm 22:15 KJV).

 

A sponge soaked in posca, the cheap, sour wine that was the staple drink of the Roman legionnaires, was lifted to Jesus' lips. His body was now in extremis, and He could feel the chill of death creeping through His tissues. This realization brought forth His sixth word, possibly little more than a tortured whisper: "It is finished." His mission of atonement had been completed. Finally, He could allow His body to die. With one last surge of strength, He once again pressed His torn feet against the nail, straightened His legs, took a deeper breath, and uttered His seventh and last cry: "Father, into Your hands I commit My spirit."

 

Death

The common method of ending a crucifixion was by crurifracture, the breaking of the bones of the leg. This prevented the victim from pushing himself upward; the tension could not be relieved from the muscles of the chest, and rapid suffocation occurred. The legs of the two thieves were broken, but when the soldiers approached Jesus, they saw that this was unnecessary.

 

Apparently, to make doubly sure of death, the legionnaire drove his lance between the ribs, upward through the pericardium and into the heart. John 19:34 states, "And immediately there came out blood and water." Thus there was an escape of watery fluid from the sac surrounding the heart and the blood of the interior of the heart. This is rather conclusive post-mortem evidence that Jesus died, not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation, but of heart failure due to shock and constriction of the heart by fluid in the pericardium.

 

Resurrection

In these events, we have seen a glimpse of the epitome of evil that man can exhibit toward his fellow man and toward God. This is an ugly sight and is likely to leave us despondent and depressed.

 

But the crucifixion was not the end of the story. How grateful we can be that we have a sequel: a glimpse of the infinite mercy of God toward man--the gift of atonement, the miracle of the resurrection, and the expectation of Easter morning.

 

*Dr. C. Truman Davis is a graduate of the University of Tennessee College of Medicine. He is a practicing ophthalmologist, a pastor, and author of a book about medicine and the Bible.

 

Jesus Explained The Eucharist The Day After Feeding The 5000

"Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life within you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him." John 6:53-56

 

Jesus Gave Us The Eucharist For All Time The Night Before He Died

"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, said the blessing, broke it, and giving it to his disciples said, "Take and eat; this is my body." Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins. " Matthew 26:26-28

 

Today Some Cannot Accept The Gift Just As It Was In The Time Of Jesus

"'But there are some of you who do not believe.' Jesus knew from the beginning the ones who would not believe and the one who would betray him. And he said, 'For this reason I have told you that no one can come to me unless it is granted him by my Father.' As a result of this, many (of) his disciples returned to their former way of life and no longer accompanied him. Jesus then said to the Twelve, 'Do you also want to leave?' Simon Peter answered him, 'Master, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life.'" John 6:64-68

 

Jesus Explained That Eternal Life Is Gained Through The Spirit - Not Through The Flesh

Jesus' Flesh And Blood Are Of Divine Nature (Spirit) And Not Of This World (Flesh)

"It is the spirit that gives life, while the flesh is of no avail. The words I have spoken to you are spirit and life.John 6:64-68

 

It's NOT Just Bread And Wine - It's NOT Just Crackers And Grape Juice

Jesus Gave Us The Eucharist To Nourish Us Until He Returns

Come Home To HIS Church And Accept HIS Holy Flesh And Blood

 

"Whoever listens to you listens to me. Whoever rejects you rejects me. And whoever rejects me rejects the one who sent me." Luke 10:16

 

 

 

 

Do Not Reject HIS Church

Do Not Reject HIM

 

COME HOME AND LEARN THE TRUTH

 

 

 

 

 العربية   中文   Français   Deutsch   Italiano   日本語   한국어   Portuguese   Российская   Español

Automated Translation From English - Always Rely On The Church For Complete Understanding

 

 


My objective in building this site is to spread the truth of the Christian Faith - the truth of the Catholic Faith. Many of our brothers and sisters are misinformed or have no knowledge about our Catholic Faith. If you find this site useful and informative, please provide a link. What I profess is freely available to all. Join the evangelization effort of the new millennium. All scripture references are taken from the New American Bible, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 3211 4th Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20017-1194 (202) 541-3000 - December 09, 2002 Copyright © by United States Conference of Catholic Bishops June 03, 2003 Copyright © by United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Copyright © of some material on this site is held by other parties.

DO NOT IMPROPERLY REPRODUCE ANY MATERIAL WITHOUT SPECIFIC PERMISSION OF THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER.